Lower Back Pain - DEEP DIVE

Lower back pain, a common ailment, refers to discomfort or pain localised in the lumbar region of the spine. It often arises from various factors, including muscle strain, spinal disc issues like herniation, or underlying medical conditions. This pain can range from a dull ache to sharp, stabbing sensations and may worsen with movement or certain activities. Lower back pain can impact mobility, flexibility, and overall quality of life, affecting daily routines and activities. Understanding its causes and symptoms is crucial for effective management and seeking appropriate medical attention when needed.


Lower back pain manifests in various ways, often disrupting daily activities and mobility. Common symptoms include a dull ache or sharp pain localised to the lower back region. This discomfort may worsen with movement, such as bending, lifting, or twisting. Individuals may also experience stiffness or muscle tightness in the lower back, limiting flexibility and range of motion.

In some cases, lower back pain can radiate to other areas of the body, such as the buttocks, thighs, or even down the legs. This phenomenon, known as referred pain, occurs when the pain signals travel along nerve pathways, often indicative of nerve irritation or compression.

Accompanying sensations like tingling, numbness, or weakness in the legs may signal nerve involvement, particularly when sciatica is present due to conditions like a herniated disc or spinal stenosis.

Moreover, lower back pain can impact daily activities, sleep quality, and overall well-being, leading to decreased productivity and quality of life. Recognising these symptoms and seeking appropriate medical evaluation and treatment can help individuals manage lower back pain effectively and regain control over their daily lives.


  1. Muscle strain is one of the most common culprits, often resulting from poor posture, sudden movements, or overexertion during physical activity. This strain leads to discomfort and limited mobility.
  2. Disc herniations, another common cause of lower back pain, occur when the soft material within a spinal disc protrudes through the tough outer layer. This can result in localised discomfort or pain that radiates into the legs if the herniation compresses nearby nerves. Disc herniations can be extremely painful and are usually caused by; lifting a heavy weight incorrectly, bending forward and twisting suddenly or in road traffic collisions.
  3. Sciatica, characterised by shooting or burning pain radiating from the lower back down the legs, poses additional challenges. It often results from compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve, leading to discomfort and limited mobility. The compression of this nerve can also lead to pins and needles, numbness or weakness affecting parts of the leg or sometimes even the entire leg! Now it’s pretty difficult to pinch a nerve but some risk factors include

• Older Ages
• Obesity
• Manual Occupations
• Prolonged sitting
• Diabetes

Home Exercises 

So what can be done about my back pain? Initially it is always best to talk to a professional such as an Osteopath to get a diagnosis for your back pain. However here are a few gentle exercises you can try at home to help alleviate the pain.

  1. Seated Forward Bend: Sit on a sturdy chair on the edge of your bed. Slowly reach forward, hinging at the hips, and try to touch your toes or reach as far as comfortable. Hold this stretch for 20 seconds, focusing on elongating the spine and relaxing the lower back muscles.
  2. Hip Flexor Stretch: Kneel on one knee with the other foot planted flat on the floor in front of you. Gently press your hips forward while keeping your back straight until you feel a stretch in the front of the hip and thigh of the kneeling leg. Hold for 20 seconds, then switch sides. This stretch helps alleviate tension in the hip flexors, which can contribute to lower back discomfort.
  3. Child’s Pose: Start on all fours, then sit back on your heels, extending your arms forward and lowering your forehead to the ground. Hold this gentle stretch for 30 seconds to 1 minute, focusing on deep breathing to relax the lower back muscles and elongate the spine.
  4. Wall Angels: Stand with your back against a wall, feet hip-width apart, and arms pressed against the wall at shoulder height. Slowly slide your arms up the wall, keeping elbows and wrists in contact with the surface, until your arms are fully extended overhead. Hold for a few seconds, then lower them back down. Repeat 10-15 times to improve shoulder mobility and strengthen the muscles supporting the spine.
  5. Seated Figure 4 Stretch: Again in a sturdy chair or on the edge of your bed. Cross one ankle over the opposite knee to form a figure 4 shape. Slowly push your knee down until you feel a stretch in the hip and glutes. Hold for 20 seconds, then switch sides.


Osteopathy presents a multifaceted approach to addressing lower back pain, drawing from a rich body of literature that underscores its efficacy in pain management and functional improvement. Through a combination of manual techniques, patient education, and lifestyle modifications, osteopathic care aims to alleviate pain, restore mobility, and enhance overall well-being for individuals struggling with lower back issues.

Osteopathic care extends beyond symptom management to address underlying biomechanical imbalances contributing to lower back pain. By employing a variety of hands-on techniques such as soft tissue manipulation, joint mobilisation, and spinal manipulation, osteopaths work to restore proper function to the musculoskeletal system. This approach not only targets pain directly but also promotes optimal biomechanics and movement patterns, reducing the risk of future recurrences and enhancing overall musculoskeletal health.

Additionally, osteopathic treatment encompasses patient education and empowerment, equipping individuals with the knowledge and tools to take an active role in their own healing journey. Osteopaths may provide guidance on ergonomic principles, posture correction, and therapeutic exercises tailored to each patient’s unique needs and goals. By fostering self-awareness and self-management skills, osteopathic care empowers individuals to make sustainable lifestyle changes that support long-term recovery and resilience against lower back pain.

Numerous studies have explored the effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in managing lower back pain, with compelling results. A systematic review published in the American Journal of Medicine analysed data from 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and concluded that OMT led to significant reductions in pain and disability compared to control interventions in patients with chronic low back pain. This meta-analysis highlights the potential of osteopathic techniques in providing meaningful relief for individuals grappling with persistent lower back discomfort.

Furthermore, research published in the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association investigated the impact of osteopathic manual therapy on patients with acute nonspecific low back pain. The study found that participants who received OMT experienced greater improvements in pain intensity, functional status, and overall satisfaction compared to those who received sham therapy. These findings underscore the role of osteopathy as an effective intervention for acute lower back pain, offering tangible benefits for patients seeking prompt and comprehensive relief.

In summary, the current literature provides robust support for the effectiveness of osteopathy in managing lower back pain. Through a comprehensive and patient-centered approach, osteopathic care addresses pain, dysfunction, and underlying contributors to promote optimal musculoskeletal health and overall well-being. As research in this field continues to evolve, osteopathy remains a valuable and evidence-based therapeutic option for individuals seeking relief from lower back issues.

“I have a love-hate relationship with my back. Every time I bend over, it reminds me we’re not on the best of terms.”